Anyone who visited Kruger National Park, or one of the many other African game parks, will have been amazed by the variety and abundance of large game. The same can be said for wildlife parks in Northern America and India. Europe once had a wildlife wealth comparable to these areas.

By different causes, many of these species became extinct. Some as early as at beginning of the Holocene, about 11.800 years ago, others as recent as only a couple of hundred years ago. Some species were driven to the extreme corners of our continent, to the least accessible areas, or even into Asia. Other species were blocked on their return into Europe after the last Ice age.

Species presented on the next pages have a know existence in Europe within the Holocene period (11.800 years ago till present), which started after the last Ice age.